Alcohol is a substance found in some drinks and medicines. The alcohol in drinks is called ethanol which is made by fermenting the sugars in grains, vegetables, and fruits with yeast. It is also used in the preparation of some medicines, essential oils, and in some household products which are made from scented liquid taken from certain plants. In general, alcohol is classified as a depressant as it slows down vital functions such as slurred speech, unsteady movements, etc. Excessive consumption of alcohol increases physical and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.
Excessive alcohol consumption can harm health resulting in 1 in 5 deaths among adults aged 20-49 years (Schukit, A.M., 2009). It includes binge, moderate and heavy drinkers. people who limit their intake to 2 or fewer drinks have fewer health issues than people who drink more. Excessive drinking can have immediate effects on physical and mental health such as accidents, violence, and suicide in which some cases can lead to a medical emergency. It can also have long-term effects on health such as high blood pressure, liver disease, heart disease, depression anxiety and increases the chance of getting sick by weakening the immune system. Reducing alcohol intake can be beneficial, one can reduce the risk of short and long-term effects.
Effective government policies to control excessive alcohol use in adults focuses mainly on reducing alcohol consumption or adopting safer drinking patterns to avoid the risk of medical, psychological, and social problems. Regular practice of the strategies by implementing them in daily routine life leads to a healthy mind and body. A study of analysis between mortality and average alcohol consumption found that men who consume more than 4 drinks per day and women with 2 or more drinks per day experienced relatively more mortality rates than non-drinkers. People who begin drinking at a young age have more alcohol dependence than people who wait until their adult age.
Alcohol consumption has become a routine part of social life for many people with high societal influence nationally and internationally. It plays a vital part in accompanying social behavior. According to WHO the consumption of alcohol causes nearly 3 million deaths every year and is responsible for 51% of diseases globally. The National institute of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (NIAAA) has provided guidelines to confine risks for short and long-term drinking-related issues by setting specific age and sex-recommended consumption. For adult women and anyone older than 65 years of age, the standard recommendation is 1 or fewer drinks per day. For adult men, it is less than 2 drinks per day. These guidelines do not apply to pregnant women, adolescents, or persons with medical conditions whose alcohol intake is restricted to no consumption which is considered safe.
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