Education plays a significant role in the development of a nation. A country cannot expect growth without investing in education. The first education policy was introduced in India in 1968 and the second in 1986. It was then modified in 1992. The Indian government has now decided to bring reformatory changes to the traditional education system. This decision has led to the formation of the new National Education Policy, 2020.
Let’s look at the major changes introduced as per the National Education Policy,2020:
- The name of the HRD Ministry will be renamed as the Ministry of Education:- To keep the focus on education and learning, the Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD) will be re-named as the Ministry of Education(MoE).
- GDP investment will be increased from 1.6%-6%: According to The Economic Survey, India spent 3% of its total GDP on education in 2018-2019. The GDP investment in education will increase to 6% according to the new policy.
- Gross Enrolment Ratio will be increased up to 50% until 2035: The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is used to determine the number of students enrolled in school at different grade levels. According to the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE), the GER in the year 2018-2019 was 26.3%. The new policy aims at raising it to 50% in 2035.
- The Prime Minister of India will head the National Education Commission.
Changes in School Education
- The 10+2 structure will be replaced with a 5+3+3+4 model. It implies that there will be four stages as mentioned below:
- Foundation Stage: It will cover children of ages 3-8 years. The focus will be on activity-based learning.
- Preparatory Stage: It will cover the kids between ages 8-14 years. It will focus on speaking, reading, writing, physical education, languages, art, science, and mathematics.
- Middle Stage: It will cover children between ages 11-14. They will learn the concepts of mathematics, sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities.
- Secondary Stage: It will cover the ages of 14-18 years. These 4 years of study will provide a multidisciplinary study. It will also encourage critical thinking.
- Many options for subjects will be provided. The curriculum will be more flexible. Students can now have interdisciplinary combinations of subjects. For example, if a student wants to study Chemistry with Humanities, then this will be allowed.
- Coding will be taught from class 6th onwards.
- The mid-day meal will include breakfast too. Also, regular counselling will be given on medical health.
- A structural change of 10 days of bagless experience will be implemented. This will be done to bring exposure to vocational training to the students. It will ensure that they are well equipped with basic life skills for their survival.
- Self Evaluation will be introduced. This will help in boosting critical thinking in the students.
- Students will be offered two attempts to crack the board exams. The exams will be conducted twice in a year. The exam pattern will include both the objective and the subjective.
- Students will not be required to take exams every year. The exams will only be conducted in class 3rd,5th, and 8th.
Changes in the Higher Education
- A multidisciplinary Bachelor’s Degree will be introduced with flexible exit options. Credit will be given in the following form:
- Certificate of completion after completing one year of study.
- Diploma after completing two years of the course
- Bachelor’s degree on completing 3 years course
- M.Phil (Masters in Philosophy) course will be discontinued.
- Higher education institutes like the IITs will make changes in their curriculum.
- To globalize education, Foreign Universities will now be allowed to set up campuses in India.
- The fees of both private and public universities will be fixed.
- To increase the GER a special council will be set up.
- The National Testing Agency will conduct entrance examinations of the universities.
To become a teacher, four years of integrated B.Ed will be required. This will be enforced by 2030. This will ensure that all the students are taught by well-trained teachers.
We can say that the National Education Policy, 2020 will be a great reform in education. Though it may take a long time to implement this policy but once followed it will make the students future-ready. With the introduction of the new policy, they will learn vocational studies and life skills which will contribute in their holistic development.